An in-depth 34-page research Paper dated 2016 by Mikk Raud of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) in Tallinn, Estonia examines China's cyber challenges from an integrated set of social, economic, political, military and national strategic perspectives.
This delves into how US global dominance in cyber technologies and infrastructure is seen as posing security threats to China, how cyberspace is being defined within China's society, how a control-mindset has been developed and entrenched, and how cyber capabilities and innovation are viewed as essential for China national renaissance.
The Paper carefully reviews published high-level Chinese government documents on cyber policies and strategies, including those of the State Council. It dissects China's strategic cyber governance structures, including civilian cyber administrative agencies as well as those in the People's Liberation Army (PLA), such as the 3rd and 4th departments of the General Staff Department and the newly constituted Strategic Support Force (SSF), including aspects of cyber warfare.
The recent creation of a Central Internet Security and Information Leading Group under President Xi Jinping's personal responsibility speaks volumes on how importantly China regards cyber strategy as a vital component of national security as well as China's trajectory to great power status in a new Cyber Age.